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The eye is a complex organ that works much like a camera, focusing light rays and forming an image. The surface of the eye is the cornea, a thin layer of tissue that provides a clear window for light to pass through. The cornea bends or refracts light rays so they focus precisely on the retina. Next is the iris, the colored part of the eye. In the center of the iris is the pupil. The iris functions like a shutter, adjusting pupil size to control the amount of light entering the eye.
Located behind the iris is the lens, which works together with the cornea to focus light. Like the lens in a camera, it adjusts light rays as vision shifts between near and far objects. Light then passes through the vitreous, the gelatinous substance that fills most of the eye. The back of the eye is lined with a thin layer of tissue containing millions of photoreceptor (light-sensitive) cells. This is the retina, where light rays focus. The retina is like the film of a camera. The center of the retina is called the macula. The macula is responsible for clear central vision and the peripheral retina is responsible for peripheral vision. The retina converts the image into an electrical signal that travels down the optic nerve to the brain.